Plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of companies or public and private sector organizations. Duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources, but are too diverse and general in nature to be classified in any one functional area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services. Includes owners and managers who head small business establishments whose duties are primarily managerial.
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Annual figures are on top. Hourly figures are below in parentheses.
N/A = Information not available
Little to no change in employment of top executives is expected. Keen competition for jobs is expected because the prestige and high pay of these positions attract many applicants.
Employment of top executives—including chief executives and general and operations managers—is expected to experience little to no change from 2008 to 2018. However, because these workers are essential to running companies and organizations, projected employment of top executives will vary by industry and will generally reflect the growth or decline of that industry. For example, job growth is expected in the fast-growing health services industry, while employment declines for top executives are projected for many manufacturing industries.
Employment of top executives also will be affected by the amount of consolidation occurring in a particular industry, because some management jobs typically are lost after a merger with another company. As a business grows, the number of top executives changes less than the number of employees. Therefore, top executives are not expected to experience as much employment growth as workers in the occupations they oversee.
Keen competition is expected for top executive positions because the prestige and high pay attract a substantial number of qualified applicants. Because this is a large occupation, numerous openings will occur each year as executives transfer to other positions, start their own businesses, or retire. However, many executives who leave their jobs transfer to other executive positions, a pattern that limits the number of job openings for new entrants to the occupation.
Experienced managers whose accomplishments reflect strong leadership qualities and the ability to improve the efficiency or competitive position of an organization will have the best opportunities. In an increasingly global economy, experience in international economics, marketing, and information systems, as well as knowledge of several languages also may be beneficial.
Top executives held about 2.1 million jobs in 2008. Employment by detailed occupation was distributed as follows:
|General and operations managers
Job Zone 3 - Medium preparation
Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have gone through an apprenticeship program or several years of vocational training to perform the job.
Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related job experience, or an associate's degree. Some may require a bachelor's degree.
Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training, including both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers.
Dental assistants, electricians, fish and game wardens, legal secretaries, personnel recruiters and recreational workers.
These occupations often involve using communication and organization skills to manage and train others.
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Unfortunately, no related occupation data exists for this profession.
For more information on top executives, including educational programs, contact:
- American Management Association, 1601 Broadway, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10019. Internet: http://www.amanet.org
- National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439. Internet: http://www.nma1.org
For more information on executive financial management careers, contact:
- Financial Executives International, 200 Campus Dr., Florham Park, NJ 07932. Internet: http://www.financialexecutives.org
- Financial Management Association International, College of Business Administration, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., BSN 3331, Tampa, FL 33620. Internet: http://www.fma.org
For information about management skills development, including the Certified Manager (CM) credential, contact:
- Institute for Certified Professional Managers, James Madison University, MSC 5504, Harrisonburg, VA 22807. Internet: http://www.icpm.biz
Sources: O*Net data version 12.0
Occupational Outlook Handbook
Department of Labor
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