Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers lay floor coverings in homes, offices, hospitals, stores, restaurants, and many other types of buildings. Tile also may be installed on walls and ceilings. Carpet, tile, and other types of floor coverings not only serve an important basic function in buildings, but their decorative qualities also contribute to the appeal of the buildings.
Before installing carpet, carpet installers first inspect the surface to be covered to determine its condition and, when necessary, correct any imperfections that could show through the carpet or cause the carpet to wear unevenly. They measure the area to be carpeted and plan the layout, keeping in mind likely traffic patterns and placement of seams for best appearance and maximum wear.
When installing wall-to-wall carpet without tacks, installers first fasten a tackless strip to the floor, next to the wall. They then install the padded cushion, or underlay. Next, they roll out, measure, mark, and cut the carpet, allowing for 2 to 3 inches of extra carpet for the final fitting. Using a device called a "knee kicker," they position the carpet, stretching it to fit evenly on the floor and snugly against each wall and door threshold. They then cut off the excess carpet. Finally, using a power stretcher, they stretch the carpet, hooking it to the tackless strip to hold it in place. The installers then finish the edges using a wall trimmer.
Because most carpet comes in 12-foot widths, wall-to-wall installations require installers to join carpet sections together for large rooms. The installers join the sections using heat-taped seams—seams held together by a special plastic tape that is activated by heat.
In commercial installations, carpet often is glued directly to the floor or to padding that has been glued to the floor. For special upholstery work, such as installing carpet on stairs, carpet may be held in place with staples.
Carpet installers use hand tools such as hammers, drills, staple guns, carpet knives, and rubber mallets. They also may use carpet-laying tools, such as carpet shears, knee kickers, wall trimmers, loop pile cutters, heat irons, and power stretchers.
Floor installers and floor layers lay floor coverings such as laminate, linoleum, vinyl, cork, and rubber for decorative purposes or to reduce noise, absorb shocks, or create air-tight environments. Although these workers also may install carpet, wood, or tile, that is not their main job. Before installing the floor, floor layers inspect the surface to be covered and, if necessary, correct any defects, such as a sub-floor that is unleveled or contains rotted wood, in order to start with a strong, smooth, clean foundation. Then they measure and cut flooring materials. When installing linoleum or vinyl, they may use an adhesive to glue the material directly to the floor. For laminate floor installation, workers may unroll and install a polyethylene film that acts as a moisture barrier, along with a thicker, padded underlayer that helps reduce noise. Cork and rubber floors can often be installed directly on top of the sub-floor without an underlayer. Finally, floor layers install the floor covering to form a tight fit.
After a carpenter installs a new hardwood floor or when a customer wants to refinish an old wood floor, floor sanders and finishers are called in to smooth any imperfections in the wood and apply coats of varnish or polyurethane. To remove imperfections and smooth the surface, they scrape and sand wood floors using floor-sanding machines. After sanding, they then examine the floor and remove excess glue from joints using a knife or wood chisel and may further sand the wood surfaces by hand, using sandpaper. Finally, they apply sealant using brushes or rollers, often applying multiple coats.
Tile installers, tilesetters, and marble setters apply hard tile and marble to floors, walls, ceilings, countertops, patios, and roof decks. Tile and marble are durable, impervious to water, and easy to clean, making them a popular building material in bathrooms, kitchens, hospitals, and commercial buildings.
Prior to installation, tilesetters use measuring devices, spacers, and levels to ensure that the tile is placed in a consistent manner. Tiles vary in color, shape, and size, with their sides ranging from 1 inch to 24 or more inches in length, so tilesetters sometimes prearrange tiles on a dry floor according to the planned design. This allows them to examine the pattern, check that they have enough of each type of tile, and determine where they will have to cut tiles to fit the design in the available space. Tilesetters cut tiles with a machine saw or a special cutting tool to cover all exposed areas, including corners and around pipes, tubs, and wash basins. To set tile on a flat, solid surface, such as drywall, concrete, plaster, or wood, tilesetters first use a tooth-edged trowel to spread a "thin set"—a thin layer of either cement adhesive or "mastic," which is a very sticky paste. They then properly position the tile and gently tap the surface with the trowel handle, a rubber mallet, or a small block of wood to set the tile evenly and firmly. Spacers are used to maintain exact distance between tiles, and any excess thin set is wiped off the tile immediately after placement.
To apply tile to an area that lacks a solid surface, tilesetters nail a support of metal mesh or tile backer board to the wall or ceiling to be tiled. They use a trowel to apply a cement mortar—called a "scratch coat"—onto the metal screen, and scratch the surface of the soft mortar with a small tool similar to a rake. After the scratch coat has dried, tilesetters apply a brown coat of mortar to level the surface, and then apply mortar to the brown coat and begin to place tile onto the surface. Hard backer board also is used in areas where there is excess moisture, such as a shower stall.
When the cement or mastic has set, tilesetters fill the joints with "grout," which is very fine cement. Grout that is used for joints 1/8th of an inch and larger typically has sand in it. Tilesetters then apply the grout to the surface with a rubber-edged device called a "float" or a grouting trowel to fill the joints and remove excess grout. Before the grout sets, they wipe the tiles and smooth the joints with a wet sponge for a uniform appearance.
Marble setters cut and set marble slabs on floors and walls of buildings. They trim and cut marble to specified sizes using a power wet saw, other electric cutting equipment, or handtools. After setting the marble in place, the workers polish the marble to a high luster using power tools or by hand.
Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers usually work indoors and have regular daytime hours. However, when floor covering installers need to work in occupied stores or offices, they may work evenings and weekends to avoid disturbing customers or employees. By the time workers install carpets, flooring, or tile in a new structure, the majority of construction has been completed and the work area is relatively clean and uncluttered. Installing these materials is labor intensive; workers spend much of their time bending, kneeling, and reaching—activities that require endurance. The work can be very hard on workers' knees; therefore, safety regulations often require that they wear kneepads. Carpet installers frequently lift heavy rolls of carpet and may move heavy furniture, which requires strength and can be physically exhausting and hard on workers' backs. Carpet and floor layers may be exposed to fumes from various kinds of glue and to fibers of certain types of carpet. Tile and floor installers are usually required to wear safety goggles when using certain equipment.
Workers are subject to cuts from tools or materials, falls from ladders, and strained muscles. Data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics show that full-time carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers experienced a work-related injury and illness rate that was higher than the national average.
|1.||Sweep, scrape, sand, or chip dirt and irregularities to clean base surfaces, correcting imperfections that may show through the covering.|
|2.||Cut flooring material to fit around obstructions.|
|3.||Inspect surface to be covered to ensure that it is firm and dry.|
|4.||Trim excess covering materials, tack edges, and join sections of covering material to form tight joint.|
|5.||Form a smooth foundation by stapling plywood or Masonite over the floor or by brushing waterproof compound onto surface and filling cracks with plaster, putty, or grout to seal pores.|
|6.||Measure and mark guidelines on surfaces or foundations, using chalk lines and dividers.|
|7.||Cut covering and foundation materials, according to blueprints and sketches.|
|8.||Roll and press sheet wall and floor covering into cement base to smooth and finish surface, using hand roller.|
|9.||Apply adhesive cement to floor or wall material to join and adhere foundation material.|
|10.||Determine traffic areas and decide location of seams.|
|11.||Lay out, position, and apply shock-absorbing, sound-deadening, or decorative coverings to floors, walls, and cabinets, following guidelines to keep courses straight and create designs.|
|12.||Remove excess cement to clean finished surface.|
|13.||Disconnect and remove appliances, light fixtures, and worn floor and wall covering from floors, walls, and cabinets.|
|14.||Heat and soften floor covering materials to patch cracks or fit floor coverings around irregular surfaces, using blowtorch.|
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